Books translated by Mari Takenouchi竹野内真理の翻訳本

Books translated by Mari Takenouchi 竹野内真理の翻訳本
『人間と環境への低レベル放射能の脅威(The Petkau Effect/ Original German: Der Petkau-Effect Katastrophale Folgen niedriger Radioaktivitat)』
『原発閉鎖が子供を救う(Radioactive Baby Teeth: The Cancer Link)』
『低線量内部被曝の脅威ー原発周辺の健康破壊と疫学的立証の記録(The Enemy Within)』


トリチウムについてのメモ書き What is tritium?


IAEA supports discharge of tritium water! is very toxic to human bodies!

I wrote the following note about tritium (radioactive hydrogen with a half-life of 12.3 years) in 2009.

Since the government of Japan has been considering the release of tritium water into the Pacific Ocean, I believe this is one of the gravest environment issues which needs urgent attention.
What is tritium? 

What is tritium? Tritium is radioactive hydrogen, which generates beta rays with a half-life of 12.3 years. In the environment, it often exists as tritium water (HTO), and when taken into the body from drinking water or food, most HTO enters the blood vessels being distributed evenly in almost the entire body within 24 hours. Since it can be also absorbed from the skin, it is understandable that surfers’ groups in Tohoku areas are very concerned. Tritium beta rays can be blocked by a piece of paper, but that means, if HTO is taken into one’s body, the body will keep being exposed by internal radiation.

人の身体は60%は水分であるから、もちろんトリチウムは体内に水の形で滞留するが、その生物学的半減期は10日である。しかも、最近問題になっているのは、水素と同じ性質を持つトリチウムが、生物体内で蛋白質、糖、脂肪などの有機物と結合した、有機結合型トリチウム(OBTOrganically Bound Tritium)である。その場合、人体に滞留する日数はトリチウム水の3倍以上で約30日~45日滞留するとされる。よって体内摂取し、OBTとなると、その分長く被曝の影響を受け、トリチウムの危険性はいっそう増すことになる。
Since 60% of human body is water, of course, tritium stays in the body in the form of water, and its biological half-life is 10 days. However, what has recently become regarded as an issue is organically bound tritium (OBT) with the same properties as hydrogen bound to organic substances such as proteins, sugars, and fats in living organisms. In case of OBT, the biological half-life is more than three times that of HTO, which is about 30 to 45 days. Therefore, when HTO is incorporated into the body and becomes OBT, the risk of tritium increases even more due to the longer exposure time.

As a matter of fact, tritium is a substance regarded as toxic since the 1980s. In 1981, at the Japanese Science and Technology Agency Forensic Medical Seminar, Mr. Koichi Akita from Ibaraki University made a research presentation saying, “In case of human-beings, one in 10 leukocytes breaks at an allowable concentration of tritiated thymidine. “ This means, even if the tritium concentration is at the allowable level, as high as10% of the cells' chromosomes breaks. Mr. Akita stated that the ICRP recommended that the permissible concentration (whole body) level of l0.05μCi / ml should be reviewed, but his recommendation has been ignored.

The allowable concentration of tritium is made with a low standard, which is 400 times lower than that of cobalt. Tritium's beta energy is said to be weak and 400 times safer, but that is not true. When radiation has weaker energy, it may promote cell mutation and cancer. The lax standard of tritium seems to have relation with the political intention with which H-bomb or nuclear fission development workers would not be able to work with a strict standard.

Damage caused by tritium

Pickering nuclear power plant in Ontario, Canada has heavy water reactors that emit a large amount of tritium with annual release of 2500 TBq (similar to the one in Sellafield reprocessing plant). There is a high correlation between the amount of tritium released and the neonatal mortality rate. (Chart to be inserted) 

The surrounding cities have 85% increased birth rate of down syndromes. Increased birth rates with abnormalities in the central nervous system has also been revealed. (Canada Atomic Energy Commission Report)

Correlation between external radiation dose of nuclear workers at the UK / Sellafield reprocessing plant and their children's leukemia rate was also found. In the surrounding area of the Sellafield, childhood leukemia was on the rise, and tritium and plutonium were cited as potential nuclides that could cause exposure. (Gardner Report)

Congenital malformations are occurring at high levels among babies in the downwind and downstream with villages with Rajasthan heavy water reactors in India. (UK 4-channel TV)

Birth rates with abnormal nervous system (such as anencephalopathy) are on the increase in the US surrounding the Hanford military facility. (Sever Report written by a son of a worker at Hanford Military Facility)

  Adult leukemia has been increasing around the Savannah River plant in the US South Carolina. It is also informally reported that the death rate in the perinatal period (from birth to early neonatal period) is high in the Barnwell area of ​​the US. (National Cancer Institute NCI report)

ヒトの末梢血液をin vitro(生体外)で照射してTリンパの急性障害をしらべた結果、トリチウムの細胞致死効果はγ線より高く、また放射線感受性はいずれの血液細胞もマウスよりヒトの方が高いことが明らかにされている。
As a result of examining human peripheral blood in vitro (in vitro) for its acute damage on T-lymph cell, it has been found that tritium has a higher cell lethal effect than γ-rays, and its radio sensitivity is higher in humans than in mice.

In the case of tritium exposure, changes in the normal blood image are small even if there are obvious changes at the stem cell level. Therefore, stem cell check is important for monitoring acute effect.

It is not likely for people to take a large amount of tritium water at a time, but cases of long-term exposure to low-concentration tritium water must be considered.

 実際に、トリチウムをヒトが長期間摂取した被ばく事故例が1960年代にヨーロッパで起きている。トリチウムは夜光剤として夜光時計の文字盤に使用されているが、これを製造する二つの施設で事故が発生している。一つは、トリチウムを7.4年にわたって被ばくした例で280テラベクレル(TBq)のトリチウムと接触し、相当量のトリチウムを体内に取り込んだ事例である。尿中のトリチウム量から被ばく線量は3~6Svと推定されている。症状としては全身倦怠、悪心、その後白血球減少、血小板減少が起こり、汎血球減少症が原因で死亡している( 表3 )。
As a matter of fact, there were accidents in Europe in the 1960s when people ingested tritium for a long duration of time. Tritium was used as a luminous agent on the dial of luminescent clocks, and these accidents have occurred at the two facilities manufacturing the clocks. One is a case where the person was exposed to tritium for 7.4 years, and the person was contacted with 280 terabecquerel (TBq) tritium, and a considerable amount of tritium was taken into the body. From the amount of tritium in urine, the exposure dose is estimated to be 3-6Sv. Symptoms included general malaise, nausea, then developed to leucopenia and thrombocytopenia, finally leading to the death due to pancytopenia (Table 3).

Another accident example followed a similar series of symptoms and the person died due to pancytopenia. The amount of tritium in the organ was 6 to 12 times higher than that in body fluid, which suggested that the victim’s tritium existed in the body as OBT (organic bound tritium).

 発電所および核燃料再処理施設の稼働によりトリチウムも放出されるが、ブルックヘブン・トリチウム毒性プログラムは低濃度トリチウム水に長期間被ばくする場合の健康影響について示唆を与えてくれる( 表4 )。
Tritium is also released by the operation of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, and the Brookhaven Tritium Toxicity Program provides suggestions for the health effects of prolonged exposure to low-concentration tritium water (Table 4).

The tritium chemical dose coefficient (Sv / Bq) by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), shows that the dose coefficient of HTO is 10,000 times that of tritium gas (HT) effective dose per unit ingested radioactivity for both inhalation and oral ingestion.

The dose coefficient of organically bound tritium (OBT) combined with tissues such as plants is about 2.3 times that of tritium water (HTO). Various processes involved in tritium migration in the environment include diffusion, deposition, rerelease, conversion of HT to HTO, and conversion of HTO to organic tritium (OBT).




壱岐新報 2019・3・1



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